- Planning performance and assigning work
- Monitoring performance
- Developing performance
- Appraising performance
- Rewarding performance
Law and OPM regulations mandate that each agency has a performance management system approved by the Office of Personnel Management. The Department of Defense system, of which Army's performance management program is a part, is found at Subchapter 430 (Performance Management) of DoD 1400.25-M (DoD Civilian Personnel Manual). The OPM approval of the DoD system is Appendix B to the subchapter. The Army program is described in AR 690-400, Chapter 4302 (Total Army Performance Evaluation System, or TAPES), dated May 22, 1993, and Change 1, dated October 16, 1998. The Army program requires that employees be given written objectives/responsibilities at the beginning of the rating period (phase 1 of the process described above). The assignment of objectives/responsibilities, along with periodic performance discussions, lets employees know what work they are going to be rated on and the standard of performance they must meet to be satisfactory. Within Army, all objectives/responsibilities are "critical," therefore at any time during the rating period that an employee's performance fails to meet 1 or more of the objectives/responsibilities, the supervisor may place an employee on a performance improvement plan (PIP) (one dimension of phase 3 as listed above). Failure to bring the performance up following that opportunity period should result in the employee being reassigned, demoted, or removed. On the opposite end of the spectrum, employees who exceed the objectives/responsibilities should be considered for recognition under the incentive awards program (phase 5 in the list above). Throughout the performance rating period, the supervisor reviews the employee's work and communicates expectations (phase 2, monitoring performance, as listed above). At the end of the rating period, there is the formal evaluation or assessment, the written evaluation and formal oral discussion, that comprise the employee's rating of record (phase 4 of the above list). This formal evaluation or assessment is conducted at the end of a rating period, normally annually. This phase is often referred to as the appraisal. Each year this cycle ends and begins again.